Dr. Shuhai Xiao Publications

(* denotes graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, or visiting scientists in the Xiao lab; please contact xiao@vt.edu for reprints)


176.  Wang*, W., C. Guan, C. Zhou, Y. Peng, L. M. Pratt, X. Chen, L. Chen, Z. Chen, X. Yuan, and S. Xiao#, 2017, Integrated carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen isotope chemostratigraphy of the Ediacaran Lantian Formation in South China: spatial gradient, ocean redox oscillation, and fossil distribution. Geobiology, doi: 10.1111/gbi.12226.

175.  Cui, H., A. J. Kaufman, S. Xiao, C. Zhou, and X. Liu, 2017, Methane-derived authigenic carbonates from the uppermost Doushantuo Formation in South China: Was the Ediacaran Shuram Excursion a globally synchronized early diagenetic event? Chemical Geology. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.12.010.

174.  Wang, Z., J. Wang, E. Suess, G. Wang, C. Chen, and S. Xiao#, 2017, Silicified glendonites in the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (South China) and their potential paleoclimatic implications. Geology. doi: 10.1130/G38613.1.

173.  Zhou, C., S. Xiao, W. Wang, C. Guan, Q. Ouyang, and Z. Chen, 2017, The stratigraphic complexity of the middle Ediacaran carbon isotopic record in the Yangtze Gorges area, South China, and its implications for the age and chemostratigraphic significance of the Shuram excursion. Precambrian Research, 288: 23-38. doi: 10.1016/j.precamres.2016.11.007.

172.  Tang*, Q., K. Pang, X. Yuan, and S. Xiao#, 2017, Electron microscopy reveals evidence for simple multicellularity in the Proterozoic fossil Chuaria. Geology, 45: 75-78. doi: 10.1130/G38680.1.


171.  Yuan, X., B. Wan, C. Guan, Z. Chen, C. Zhou, S. Xiao, W. Wang, K. Pang, Q. Tang, and H. Hua, 2016, The Lantian Biota. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai.

170.  Huang, K.-J., F.-Z. Teng, B. Shen, S. Xiao, X. Lang, H.-R. Ma, Y. Fu, and Y. Peng, 2016, Episode of intense chemical weathering during the termination of the 635 Ma Marinoan glaciation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United State of America, 113: 14904-14909. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1607712113.

169.  Xiao, S., G. M. Narbonne, C. Zhou, M. Laflamme, D. V. Grazhdankin, M. Moczydlowska-Vidal, and H. Cui, 2016, Toward an Ediacaran Time Scale: Problems, Protocols, and Prospects Episodes, 39: 540555. doi: 10.18814/epiiugs/2016/v39i4/103886.

168.  Xiao, S., Q. Tang*, N. C. Hughes, N. R. McKenzie, and P. M. Myrow, 2016, Biostratigraphic and detrital zircon age constraints on the basement of the Himalayan Foreland Basin: Implications for a Proterozoic link to the Lesser Himalaya and cratonic India. Terra Nova, 28: 419-426. doi: 10.1111/ter.12235.

167.  Cui, H., D. V. Grazhdankin, S. Xiao, S. Peek, V. I. Rogov, N. V. Bykova, N. Sievers, X.-M. Liu, and A. J. Kaufman, 2016, Redox-dependent distribution of early macro-organisms: Evidence from the terminal Ediacaran Khatyspyt Formation in Arctic Siberia. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 461: 122-139. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.08.015.

166.  Cui, H., S. Xiao, C. Zhou, Y. Peng, A. J. Kaufman, and R. E. Plummer, 2016, Phosphogenesis associated with the Shuram Excursion: petrographic and geochemical observations from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation of South China. Sedimentary Geology, 341: 134-146. doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2016.05.008.

165.  Wu, M., S. T. LoDuca, Y. Zhao, and S. Xiao, 2016, The macroalga Bosworthia from the Cambrian Burgess Shale and Kaili biotas of North America and China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 230: 47-55. doi: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2016.04.001.

164.  Wan, B., X. Yuan, Z. Chen, C. Guan, K. Pang, Q. Tang, and S. Xiao#, 2016, Systematic description of putative animal fossils from the early Ediacaran Lantian Formation of South China. Palaeontology, 59: 515-532. doi: 10.1111/pala.12242.

163.  Cui, H., A. J. Kaufman, S. Xiao, S. Peek, H. Cao, X. Min, Y. Cai, Z. Siegel, X.-M. Liu, Y. Peng, J. D. Schiffbauer, and A. J. Martin, 2016, Environmental context for the terminal Ediacaran biomineralization of animals. Geobiology, 14: 344-363. doi: 10.1111/gbi.12178.

162.  Shen, B., L. Dong, S. Xiao, X. Lang, K. Huang, Y. Peng, C. Zhou, S. Ke, and P. Liu, 2016, Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans. Nature Communications, 6: 10317. Doi: 10.1038/ncomms10317.

161.  Wang, X., G. Jiang, X. Shi, and S. Xiao, Paired carbonate and organic carbon isotope variations of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation from an upper slope section at Siduping, South China. Precambrian Research, 273: 53-66. Doi: 10.1016/j.precamres.2015.12.010.

160.  Chen, L., S. Xiao, K. Pang, C. Zhou, and X. Yuan, 2016, Are the new Ediacaran Doushantuo embryo-like fossils early metazoans? A reply. Palaeoworld, Doi:10.1016/j.palwor.2015.08.001.

159.  Muscente*, A. D., W. D. Allmon, and S. Xiao, 2016, The hydroid fossil record and analytical techniques for assessing the affinities of putative hydrozoans and possible hemichordates. Palaeontology, 59: 71-87. Doi: 10.1111/pala.12209.


158.  LoDuca, S. T., M. Wu, Y. Zhao, S. Xiao, J. D. Schiffbauer, J.-B. Caron, and L. E. Babcock, 2015, Reexamination of Yuknessia from the Cambrian of China and first report of Fuxianospira from North America. Journal of Paleontology, 89: 899911. doi: 10.1017/jpa.2016.3.

157.  Zhang, H., S. Xiao, Y. Liu, X. Yuan, B. Wan, A. D. Muscente, T. Shao, H. Gong, and G. Cao, 2015, Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian. Scientific Reports, 5:16521. DOI: 10.1038/srep16521.

156.  Muscente*, A. D. and S. Xiao, 2015. New occurrences of Sphenothallus in the lower Cambrian of South China: Implications for its affinities and taphonomic demineralization of shelly fossils. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 437: 141-164.

155.  Ye, Q., J. Tong, S. Xiao, S. Zhu, Z. An, L. Tian, and J. Hu, 2015. The survival of benthic macroscopic phototrophs in a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Geology, 43: 507-510.

154.  Ou, Q., S. Xiao, J. Han, G. Sun, F. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and D. Shu, 2015. A vanished history of skeletonization in Cambrian comb jellies. Science Advances, 1: e1500092. Doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1500092.

153.  Hughes, N. C., P. M. Myrow, N. R. McKenzie, S. Xiao, D. M. Banerjee, D. F. Stockli, and Q. Tang*, 2015. Age and Implications of the phosphatic Birmania Formation, Rajasthan, India. Precambrian Research, 267: 164-173.

152.  Tang*, Q., K. Pang, S. Xiao, X. Yuan, and B. Wan, 2015. Organic-walled microfossils from the Tonian Gouhou Formation, Huaibei region, North China Craton, and their biostratigraphic implications. Precambrian Research, 266: 296-318.

151.  Cui, H., A. J. Kaufman, S. Xiao, M. Zhu, C. Zhou, and X.-M. Liu, 2015. Redox architecture of an Ediacaran ocean margin: integrated chemostratigraphic (δ13C - δ34S - 87Sr/86Sr - Ce/Ce*) correlation of the Doushantuo Formation. Chemical Geology, 405: 48-62.

150.  Pang*, K., Q. Tang, X. Yuan, B. Wan, and S. Xiao, 2015. A biomechanical analysis of the early eukaryotic fossil Valeria and new occurrence of organic-walled microfossils from the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Ruyang Group. Palaeoworld, 24: 251-262.

149.  Muscente*, A. D. and S. Xiao, 2015. Resolving three-dimensional and subsurficial features of carbonaceous compressions and shelly fossils using backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE-SEM). Palaios, 30: 462-481.

148.  Muscente*, A. D., F. M. Michel, J. Dale, and S. Xiao, 2015. Assessing the veracity of Precambrian 'sponge' fossils using in situ nanoscale analytical techniques. Precambrian Research, 263: 142-156.

147.  Kendall, B., T. Komiya, T. W. Lyons, S. M. Bates, G. W. Gordon, S. Romaniello, G. Jiang, R. A. Creaser, S. Xiao, K. McFadden, Y. Sawaki, M. Tahata, D. Shu, J. Han, Y. Li, X. Chu, and A. D. Anbar, 2015. Uranium and molybdenum isotope evidence for widespread ocean oxygenation during the late Ediacaran Period. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 156: 173-193.

146.  Cai, Y., S. Xiao, H. Hua, and X. Yuan, 2015. New material of the biomineralizing tubular fossil Sinotubulites from the late Ediacaran Dengying Formation, South China. Precambrian Research, 261: 1224.

145.  LoDuca, S. T., J.-B. Caron, J. D. Schiffbauer, S. Xiao, and A. Kramer, 2015. A reexamination of Yuknessia from the Cambrian of British Columbia and Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 89: 82-95.

144.  Chen, A.-L., W. E. G. Müller, X.-G. Hou, and S. Xiao, 2015. New articulated protospongiid sponges from the early Cambrian Chengjiang biota. Palaeoworld, 24: 46-54. Doi:10.1016/j.palwor.2014.11.006.

143.  Muscente*, A. D., A. D. Hawkins, and S. Xiao, 2015. Fossil preservation through phosphatization and silicification in the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (South China): A comparative synthesis. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 434: 46-62. Doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.10.013.

142.  Cortijo, I., Y. Cai, H. Hua, J. D. Schiffbauer, and S. Xiao, 2015. Life history and autecology of an Ediacaran index fossil: Development and dispersal of Cloudina. Gondwana Research, 28: 419-424.Doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2014.05.001.


141.  Xiao, S., A. D. Muscente*, L. Chen*, C. Zhou, J. D. Schiffbauer, A. D. Wood, N. F. Polys, and X. Yuan, 2014. The Weng'an biota and the Ediacaran radiation of multicellular eukaryotes. National Science Review, 1: 489-520.

140.  Schiffbauer*, J. D., S. Xiao, Y. Cai, A. F. Wallace, H. Hua, J. Hunter, H. Xu, Y. Peng, and A. J. Kaufman, 2014. A unifying model for Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic exceptional fossil preservation through pyritization and carbonaceous compression. Nature Communications, 5: 5754 (doi: 10.1038/ncomms6754).

139.  Chen*, L., S. Xiao, K. Pang, C. Zhou, and X. Yuan, 2014, Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal embryo-like fossils. Nature, 516: 238-241.

138.  Zhang, H., X. Dong, and S. Xiao, 2014. New bivalved arthropods from the Cambrian (Series 3, Drumian Stage) of western Hunan, South China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 1388-1396.

137.  Schiffbauer, J. D., A. F. Wallace, J. Broce, and S. Xiao, 2014. Exceptional fossil conservation through phosphatization. p. 59-82. In M. Laflamme, J. D. Schiffbauer, and S. A. F. Darroch (ed.), Reading and Writing of the Fossil Record: Preservational Pathways to Exceptional Fossilization (The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 20).

136.  Wan*, B., S. Xiao, X. Yuan, Z. Chen, K. Pang, Q. Tang*, C. Guan, and J. A. Maisano, 2014, Orbisiana linearis from the early Ediacaran Lantian Formation of South China and its taphonomic and ecological implications. Precambrian Research, 255: 266-275.

135.  Peng, Y., H. Bao, L. M. Pratt, A. J. Kaufman, G. Jiang, D. Boyd, Q. Wang, C. Zhou, X. Yuan, S. Xiao, and S. Loyd, 2014. Widespread contamination of carbonate-associated sulfate by present-day secondary atmospheric sulfate: evidence from triple oxygen isotopes. Geology, 42: 815-818.

134.  Babcock, L. E., S. Peng, M. Zhu, S. Xiao, and P. Ahlberg, 2014. Proposed reassessment of the Cambrian GSSP. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 98: 3-10.

133.  Schiffbauer, J. D. and S. Xiao, 2014, An examination of life history and behavrioral evolution across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. Journal of Paleontology, 88: 205-206.

132.  Liu*, Y., S. Xiao, T. Shao, J. Broce, and H. Zhang, 2014, The oldest known priapulid-like scalidophoran animal and its implications for the early evolution of cycloneuralians and ecdysozoans. Evolution & Development, 16: 155-165.

131.  Meyer*, M., D. Elliott, A. D. Wood, N. F. Polys, M. Colbert, J. A. Maisano, P. Vickers-Rich, M. Hall, K. H. Hoffman, G. Schneider, and Xiao, S., 2014, Three-dimensional microCT analysis of the Ediacara fossil Pteridinium simplex sheds new light on its ecology and phylogenetic affinity. Precambrian Research, 249: 79-87.

130.  Xiao, S., M. Droser, J. G. Gehling, I. V. Hughes, B. Wan, Z. Chen, and X. Yuan, Affirming life aquatic for the Ediacara biota in China and Australia: Reply. Geology, 42: e326.

129.  Xiao, S., B. Shen, Q. Tang, A. J. Kaufman, X. Yuan, J. Li, and M. Qian, 2014, Biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic constraints on the age of early Neoproterozoic carbonate successions in North China. Precambrian Research, 246: 208-225.

128.  Chen, Z., C. Zhou, S. Xiao, W. Wang, C. Guan, H. Hua, and X. Yuan, 2014, New Ediacara fossils preserved in marine limestone and their ecological implications. Scientific Reports, 4: 4180 (DOI:10.1038/srep04180).

127.  Xiao, S., 2014, The making of Ediacaran giants. Current Biology, 24: R120-122.

126.  Broce*, J., J. D. Schiffbauer*, K. Sen Sharma, G. Wang, and S. Xiao, 2014, Possible animal embryos from the lower Cambrian (Stage 3) Shuijingtuo Formation, Hubei Province, South China. Journal of Paleontology, 88: 385-394.

125.  Meyer*, M., D. Elliott, J. D. Schiffbauer, M. Hall, K. H. Hoffman, G. Schneider, P. Vickers-Rich, and S. Xiao, 2014, Taphonomy of the Ediacaran fossil Pteridinium simplex preserved three-dimensionally in mass flow deposits, Nama Group, Namibia. Journal of Paleontology, 88: 240-252.

124.  Meyer*, M. B., S. Xiao, B. C. Gill, J. D. Schiffbauer, Z. Chen, C. Zhou, and X. Yuan, 2014, Interactions between Ediacaran animals and microbial mats: insights from Lamonte trevallis, a new trace fossil from the Dengying Formation of South China. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 396: 62-74.

123.  Liu, P., Xiao, S., C. Yin, S. Chen, C. Zhou, and M. Li, 2014, Ediacaran acanthomorphic acritarchs and other microfossils from chert nodules of the upper Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area, South China. Journal of Paleontology, 88 (supplement to No. 1): 1-139.

122.  Xiao, S., C. Zhou, P. Liu, D. Wang, and X. Yuan, 2014, Phosphatized acanthomorphic acritarchs and related microfossils from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation at Weng'an (South China) and their implications for biostratigraphic correlation. Journal of Paleontology, 88: 1-67.

121.  Xiao, S., Oxygen and early animal evolution. p. 231-250. In H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian (ed.), Treatise on Geochemistry, Second Edition, vol. 6 (The Atmosphere - History). Elsevier, Oxford.


120.  Pang*, K., Q. Tang, J. D. Schiffbauer*, J. Yao, X. Yuan, B. Wan, L. Chen, Z. Ou, and S. Xiao, 2013, The nature and origin of nucleus-like intracellular inclusions in Paleoproterozoic eukaryote microfossils. Geobiology, 11: 499-510.

119.  Xiao, S., M. Droser, J. G. Gehling, I. V. Hughes, B. Wan, Z. Chen, and X. Yuan, 2013, Affirming life aquatic for the Ediacara biota in China and Australia. Geology, 41: 1095-1098.

118.  Tang*, Q., K. Pang, S. Xiao, X. Yuan, Z. Ou, and B. Wan, 2013, Organic-walled microfossils from the early Neoproterozoic Liulaobei Formation in the Huainan region of North China and their biostratigraphic significance. Precambrian Research, 236: 157-181.

117.  Xiao, S., 2013, Written in stone: The fossil record of early eukaryotes. p. 107-124. In G. Trueba and C. Montufar (ed.), Evolution from the Galapagos: Social and Ecological Interactions in the Gapalagos Islands 2. Springer, New York.

116.  Chen, Z., C. Zhou, M. Meyer, K. Xiang, J. D. Schiffbauer, X. Yuan, and S. Xiao, 2013, Discussion: Reply to comment on "Trace fossil evidence for Ediacaran bilaterian animals with complex behaviors". Precambrian Research, 231: 386-387.

115.  Zhang, H., X.-p. Dong, and S. Xiao, 2013, Reply to "Comment on 'Three head-larvae of Hesslandona angustata', Zhang et al., Gondwana Research, Volume 21, Issue 4, May 2012, Pages 1115-1127". Gondwana Research, 23: 1181-1182.

114.  Yuan, X., Z. Chen, S. Xiao, B. Wan, C. Guan, W. Wang, C. Zhou, and H. Hua, 2013, The Lantian biota: A new window onto the origin and early evolution of multicellular organisms. Chinese Science Bulletin (English Edition), 58: 701-707.

113.  Xiao, S. and L. P. Knauth, 2013, Fossils come in to land. Nature, 493: 28-29.

112.  Chen, Z., C. Zhou, M. Meyer*, K. Xiang, J. D. Schiffbauer*, X. Yuan, and S. Xiao, 2013, Trace fossil evidence for Ediacaran bilaterian animals with complex behaviors. Precambrian Research, 224: 690-701.


111.  Botting, J. P., L. A. Muir, S. Xiao, X. Li, and J.-P. Lin, 2012, Evidence for spicule homology in calcareous and siliceous sponges: biminerallic spicules in Lenica sp. from the Early Cambrian of South China. Lethaia, 45: 463-475.

110.  Wang, W., C. Zhou, X. Yuan, Z. Chen, and S. Xiao, 2012, A pronounced negative d13Ccarb excursion in an Ediacaran succession of western Yangtze Platform: a possible equivalent to the Shuram event and its implication for chemostratigraphic correlation in South China. Gondwana Research, 22: 1091-1101.

109.  Narbonne, G. M., S. Xiao, J. G. Gehling, and G. A. Shields-Zhou, The Ediacaran Period. p. p. 413-435. In F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg, M. Schmitz, and G. Ogg (ed.), Geological Time Scale 2012. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

108.  Dong*, L., W. Song, S. Xiao, X. Yuan, Z. Chen, and C. Zhou, Micro- and macrofossils from the Piyuancun Formation and their implications for the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary in southern Anhui. Journal of Stratigraphy, 36: 600-610.

107.  Peng, S., X. Wang, S. Xiao, J. Tong, H. Hua, M. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, A call to replace the chronostratigraphic unit Sinian System (Period) with the global Ediacaran System (Period). Journal of Stratigraphy, 36: 55-59 (in Chinese with English abstract).

106.  Dong, L. and S. Xiao, Quantitative methods in morphometric study of early life. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 51: 14-25 (in Chinese with English abstract).

105.  Zhou, C., S.-Y. Jiang, S. Xiao, Z. Chen, and X. Yuan, Rare earth elements and carbon isotope geochemistry of the Doushantuo Formation in South China: Implication for middle Ediacaran shallow marine redox conditions. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57: 1998-2006.

104.  Meyer*, M., J. D. Schiffbauer, S. Xiao, Y. Cai, and H. Hua, Taphonomy of the late Ediacaran enigmatic ribbon-like fossil Shaanxilithes. Palaios, 27: 354-372.

103.  Schiffbauer*, J. D., A. F. Wallace, J. L. Hunter, M. Kowalewski, R. J. Bodnar, and S. Xiao, Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments. Geobiology, 10: 402-423.

102.  Zhang, H., X.-p. Dong, S. Xiao, Three head-larvae of Hesslandona angustata (Phosphatocopida, Crustacea) from the Upper Cambrian of western Hunan, South China and the phylogeny of Crustacea. Gondwana Research, 21: 1115-1127.

101.  Zabini, C., J. D. Schiffbauer, S. Xiao, M. Kowalewski, Biomineralization, taphonomy, and diagenesis of Paleozoic lingulide brachiopod shells preserved in silicified mudstone concretions. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 326-328: 118-127.

100.  Cai*, Y., J. D. Schiffbauer, H. Hua, S. Xiao, Preservational modes in the Ediacaran Gaojiashan Lagerstätte: Pyritization, aluminosilicification, and carbonaceous compression. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 326-328: 109-117.

99.    Cunningham, J. A., C.-W. Thomas, S. Bengtson, S. L. Kearns, S. Xiao, F. Marone, M. Stampanoni, P. C. J. Donoghue, Distinguishing geology from biology in the Ediacaran Doushantuo biota relaxes constraints on the timing of the origin of bilaterians. Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences), 279: 2369-2376.

98.    Lyons, T. W., Reinhard, C. T., Love, G. D., Xiao, S., Geobiology of the Proterozoic Eon. p. 371-402. In A. H. Knoll, D. E. Canfield, K. O. Konhauser (ed.), Fundamentals of Geobiology. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ.

97.    Xiao, S., A. H. Knoll, J. D. Schiffbauer, C. Zhou, X. Yuan, Comment on Fossilized nuclei and germination structures identify Ediacaran animal embryos as encysting protists. Science, 335: 1169c.

96.    Jiang, G., X. Wang, X. Shi, S. Xiao, The origin of decoupled carbonate and organic carbon isotope signatures in the early Cambrian (ca. 542-520 Ma) Yangtze platform. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 317-318: 96-110.

95.    Schiffbauer*, J. D., S. Xiao, K. Sen Sharma, G. Wang, The origin of intracellular structures in Ediacaran metazoan embryos. Geology, 40: 223-226.

94.    Xiao, S., K. A. McFadden*, S. Peek, A. J. Kaufman, C. Zhou, G. Jiang, and J. Hu, Integrated chemostratigraphy of the Doushantuo Formation at the northern Xiaofenghe section (Yangtze Gorges, South China) and its implication for Ediacaran stratigraphic correlation and ocean redox models. Precambrian Research, 192-195: 125-141.


93.    McKenzie, N. R., N. C. Hughes, P. M. Myrow, S. Xiao, and M. Sharma, Correlation of Precambrian-Cambrian sedimentary successions across northern India: a test of the utility of isotopic signatures of Himalayan lithotectonic units. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 312: 471-483.

92.    Cai*, Y., J. D. Schiffbauer*, H. Hua, and S. Xiao, Morphology and paleoecology of the late Ediacaran tubular fossil Conotubus hemiannulatus from the Gaojiashan Lagerstätte of southern Shaanxi Province, South China. Precambrian Research, 191: 46-57.

91.    Kowalewski, M., J. L. Payne, F. A. Smith, S. C. Wang, D. W. McShea, S. Xiao, P. Novack-Gottshall, C. R. McClain, R. A. Krause, A. G. Boyer, S. Finnegan, K. Lyons, J. A. Stempien, J. Alroy, and P. A. Spaeth, 2011, The Geozoic Supereon. Palaios, 26: 251-255.

90.    Anderson*, E., J. D. Schiffbauer*, and S. Xiao, Taphonomic study of Ediacaran organic-walled fossils confirms the importance of clay minerals and pyrite in Burgess Shale-type preservation. Geology, 39: 643-646.

89.    Jiang, G., X. Shi, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, and S. Xiao, Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (ca. 635-551 Ma) in South China. Gondwana Research, 19: 831-849.

88.    Zhang, H., X. Dong, and S. Xiao, Two species of Hesslandona (Phoshatocopida, Crustacea) from the upper Cambrian of western Hunan, South China and the phylogeny of Phosphatocopida. Journal of Paleontology, 85: 770-788.

87.    Yuan, X., Z. Chen, S. Xiao, C. Zhou, and H. Hua, An early Ediacaran assemblage of macroscopic and morphologically differentiated eukaryotes. Nature, 470: 390-393.

86.    Shen*, B., S. Xiao, H. Bao, A. J. Kaufman, C. Zhou, and X. Yuan, Carbon and sulfur isotope evidence for a strong depth gradient and oceanic oxidation after the Ediacaran Hankalchough glaciation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75: 1357-1373.

85.    Shen*, B., C.-T. Lee, and S. Xiao, Germanium/silica ratios in diagenetic chert nodules from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation, South China. Chemical Geology, 280: 323-335.


84.    Cai*, Y., H. Hua, S. Xiao, J. D. Schiffbauer*, and P. Li, Biostratinomy of the late Ediacaran pyritized Gaojiashan Lagerstätte from southern Shaanxi, South China: Importance of event deposits. Palaios, 25: 487-506.

83.    Hua, H., Z. Chen, X. Yuan, S. Xiao, and Y. Cai, The earliest Foraminifera from southern Shaanxi, China. Science China Earth Sciences, 53: 1756-1764.

82.    Jiang, G., X. Wang, X. Shi, S. Zhang, S. Xiao, and J. Dong, Organic carbon isotope constraints on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoir at the Cryogenian-Ediacaran transition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 299: 159-168.

81.    Lin, J.-P., Y.-L. Zhao, I. A. Rahman, S. Xiao, and Y. Wang, Bioturbation in Burgess Shale-type Lagerstätten - Case study of trace fossil-body fossil association from the Kaili Biota (Cambrian Series 3), Guizhou, China. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 292: 245-256.

80.    Shen*, B., S. Xiao, C. Zhou, A. J. Kaufman, and X. Yuan, Carbon and sulfur isotope chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Quanji Group of the Chaidam Basin, NW China: basin stratification in the aftermath of an Ediacaran glaciation postdating the Shuram event? Precambrian Research, 177: 241-252.

79.    Xiao, S., J. D. Schiffbauer*, K. A. McFadden*, and J. Hunter, Petrographic and SIMS pyrite sulfur isotope analyses of Ediacaran chert nodules: Implications for microbial processes in pyrite rim formation, silicification, and exceptional fossil preservation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 297: 481-495.

78.    Xiao, S., M. Kowalewski, B. Shen, L. Dong, and M. Laflamme, The rise of bilaterians: a few closing comments. Historical Biology, 22: 433-436.

77.    Xiao, S., Q. Yang, and Z.-X. Luo, A Golden Age of Paleontology in China? A SWOT Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 13: 3E:4p.

76.    Xiao, S., Evolutionary patterns of the Ediacara biota. p. 129-133. In J. Weil and D. Blumel (ed.), McGraw-Hill Year Book of Science & Technology 2010. The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York.


75.    Dong*, L., S. Xiao, B. Shen*, C. Zhou, G. Li, and J. Yao, Basal Cambrian microfossils from the Yangtze Gorges area (South China) and the Aksu area (Tarim Block, northwestern China). Journal of Paleontology, 83: 30-44.

74.    Laflamme*, M., S. Xiao, and M. Kowalewski, Osmotrophy in modular Ediacara organisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 106: 14438-14443.

73.    Liu, P., S. Xiao, C. Yin, F. Tang, and L. Gao, Silicified tubular microfossils from the upper Doushantuo Formation (Ediacaran) in the Yangtze Gorges area, South China. Journal of Paleontology, 83: 630-633.

72.    McFadden*, K.A., S. Xiao, C. Zhou, and M. Kowalewski, Quantitative evaluation of the biostratigraphic distribution of acanthomorphic acritarchs in the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area, South China. Precambrian Research, 173: 170-190.

71.    Schiffbauer*, J. D. and S. Xiao, Novel application of focused ion beam electron microscopy (FIB-EM) in the preparation and analysis of microfossil ultrastructures. Palaios, 24: 616-626.

70.    Shen*, B., S. Xiao, C. Zhou, and X. Yuan, Yangtziramulus zhangi new genus and species, a carbonate-hosted macrofossil from the Ediacaran Dengying Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area, South China. Journal of Paleontology, 83: 575-587.

69.    Xu, B., S. Xiao, H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z.-X. Li, B. Song, D. Liu, C. Zhou, and X. Yuan, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age constraints on Neoproterozoic Quruqtagh diamictites in NW China. Precambrian Research, 168: 247-258.

68.    Xiao, S. and M. Laflamme*, On the eve of animal radiation: Phylogeny, ecology and evolution of the Ediacara biota. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24: 31-40.

67.    Xiao, S., M. Kowalewski, B. Shen*, L. Dong*, and M. Laflamme*, The rise of bilaterians: A reply. Historical Biology, 21: 239-246.

66.    Yuan, X., D. Wang, and S. Xiao, Animals in the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo epoch. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 48: 375-389.

65.    Zhang, X., J. Yao, and S. Xiao, SEM observation of the polychaete Lepidonotus helotypus Grube, 1877 and its comparison with the Cambrian animal fossil Wiwaxia. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 48: 45-55.


64.    Dong*, L., S. Xiao, B. Shen*, and C. Zhou, Silicified Horodyskia and Palaeopascichnus from upper Ediacaran cherts in South China: tentative phylogenetic interpretation and implications for evolutionary stasis. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 165: 367-378.

63.    Dong*, L., S. Xiao, B. Shen*, X. Yuan, X. Yan, and Y. Peng, Restudy of the worm-like carbonaceous compression fossils Protoarenicola, Pararenicola, and Sinosabellidites from early Neoproterozoic successions in North China. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 258:138-161.

62.    Liu*, P., S. Xiao, C. Yin, C. Zhou, L. Gao, and F. Tang, Systematic description and phylogenetic affinity of tubular microfossils from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation at Weng'an, South China. Palaeontology, 51: 339-366.

61.    McFadden*, K. A., J. Huang, X. Chu, G. Jiang, A. J. Kaufman, C. Zhou, X. Yuan, and S. Xiao, Pulsed oxygenation and biological evolution in the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 105: 3197-3202.

60.    Shen*, B., S. Xiao, A. J. Kaufman, H. Bao, C. Zhou, and H. Wang, Stratification and mixing of a post-glacial Neoproterozoic ocean: Evidence from carbon and sulfur isotopes in a cap dolostone from northwest China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 265:209-228.

59.    Shen*, B., L. Dong*, S. Xiao, and M. Kowalewski, The Avalon Explosion: Evolution of Ediacara morphospace. Science, 319:81-84.

58.    Wang*, J., G. Jiang, S. Xiao, Q. Li, and Q. Wei, Carbon isotope evidence for widespread methane seeps in the ~635 Ma Doushantuo cap carbonate in South China. Geology, 36: 347-350.

57.    Xiao, S., The rise and demise of ghostly animals. Science, 319: 1618-1619.

56.    Xiao, S. and J. D. Schiffbauer*, Microfossil phosphatization and its astrobiological implications. p. 89-117. In J. Seckbach and M. Walsh (ed.), From Fossils to Astrobiology. Springer-Verlag, New York.

55.    Xiao, S., Geobiological events in the Ediacaran Period. p. 85-104. In P. H. Kelly and R. K. Bambach (ed.), From Evolution to Geobiology: Research Questions Driving Paleontology at the Start of a New Century. The Paleontological Society, New Haven.

54.    Zhu, M., J. G. Gehling, S. Xiao, Y.-L. Zhao, and M. Droser, Eight-armed Ediacara fossil preserved in contrasting taphonomic windows from China and Australia. Geology, 36: 867-870.


53.    Shen*, B., S. Xiao, L. Dong*, C. Zhou, and J. Liu, Problematic macrofossils from Ediacaran successions in the North China and Chaidam blocks: Implications for their evolutionary roots and biostratigraphic significance. Journal of Paleontology, 18:1396-1411.

52.    Schiffbauer*, J., L. Yin, R. J. Bodnar, A. J. Kaufman, F. Meng, J. Hu, B. Shen*, X. Yuan, H. Bao, and S. Xiao, Ultrastructural and geochemical characterization of Archean-Paleoproterozoic graphite particles: Implications for recognizing traces of life in highly metamorphosed rocks. Astrobiology, 7:684-704.

51.    Zhou, C., G. Xie, K. McFadden*, S. Xiao, and X. Yuan, The diversification and extinction of Doushantuo-Pertatataka acritarchs in South China: Causes and biostratigraphic significance. Geological Journal, 42:229-262.

50.    Xiao, S., C. Zhou, and X. Yuan, Undressing and redressing Ediacaran embryos. Nature, 446: E9-10.

49.    Xiao, S., J. W. Hagadorn, C. Zhou, and X. Yuan, Rare helical spheroidal fossils from the Doushantuo Lagerstätte: Ediacaran animal embryos come of age? Geology, 35: 115-118.

48.    Zhou*, C. and S. Xiao, Ediacaran Delta-13C chemostratigraphy of South China. Chemical Geology, 237: 89-108.


47.    Hagadorn, J. W., S. Xiao, P. C. J. Donoghue, S. Bengtson, N. J. Gostling, M. Pawlowska, E. C. Raff, R. A. Raff, F. R. Turner, C. Yin, C. Zhou, X. Yuan, M. B. McFeely, M. Stampanoni, and K. H. Nealson, Cellular and subcellular structure of Neoproterozoic embryos. Science, 314: 291-294.

46.    Huntley*, J. W., S. Xiao, and M. Kowalewski, 1.3 billion years of acritarch history: An empirical morphospace approach. Precambrian Research, 144: 52-68.

45.    Pyle, L. J., G. M. Narbonne, G. S. Nowlan, S. Xiao, and N. P. James, Early Cambrian metazoan eggs, embryos, and phosphatic microfossils from northwestern Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 80:811-825.

44.    Huntley*, J. W., S. Xiao, and M. Kowalewski, On the morphological history of Proterozoic and Cambrian acritarchs. p. 23-56. In S. Xiao and A. J. Kaufman (ed.), Neoproterozoic Geobiology and Paleobiology. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

43.    Xiao, S. and L. Dong*, On the morphological and ecological history of Proterozoic macroalgae. p. 57-90. In S. Xiao and A. J. Kaufman (ed.), Neoproterozoic Geobiology and Paleobiology. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

42.    S. Xiao and A. J. Kaufman (ed.), Neoproterozoic Geobiology and Paleobiology. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. 300 pages.

41.    Yuan, X., S. Xiao, and C. Zhou, Radiation of Neoproterozoic Doushantuo eukaryotes. p. 13-27, 828. In J. Rong (ed.), Origination, Radiation, and Biodiversity Changes: Evidence from the Chinese Fossil Record. Science Press, Beijing.

40.    Zhu, M., S. Xiao, and C. Yin, The Second International Paleontological Congress Pre-Meeting Field Trip A8: The Cryogenian and Ediacaran of South China: Ice Ages, Animal Embryos, Acritarchs, and Algae. Beijing, 95 pages.


39.    Xiao, S., B. Shen*, C. Zhou*, G. Xie, and X. Yuan, A uniquely preserved Ediacaran fossil with direct evidence for a quilted bodyplan. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, USA, 102: 10227-10232.

38.    Yuan, X., S. Xiao, and T. N. Taylor, Lichen-like symbiosis 600 million years ago. Science, 308: 1017-1020.

37.    Yao*, J., S. Xiao, L. Yin, G. Li, and X. Yuan, Basal Cambrian microfossils from the Yurtus and Xishanblaq formations (Tarim, north-west China): Systematic revision and biostratigraphic correlation of Micrhystridium-like acritarchs from China. Palaeontology, 48: 687-708.

36.    Hua, H., Z. Chen, X. Yuan, L. Zhang, and S. Xiao, Skeletogenesis and asexual reproduction in the earliest biomineralizing animal Cloudina. Geology, 33:277-280.

35.    Xiao, S., J. Hu, X. Yuan, R. L. Parsley, and R. Cao, Articulated sponges from the Early Cambrian Hetang Formation in southern Anhui, South China: Their age and implications for the early evolution of sponges. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 220:89-117.

34.    Zhou, C., G. Xie, and S. Xiao, New data of microfossils from Doushantuo Formation at Zhangcunping, Hubei Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 22: 217-224.


33.    Zhou, C., X. Yuan, S. Xiao, Z. Chen, and Y. Xue, Phosphatized fossil assemblage from the Doushantuo Fromation in Baokang, Hubei Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 21: 349-366.

32.    Chen, Z., J. Hu, C. Zhou, S. Xiao, and X. Yuan, Sponge fossil assemblage from the Early Cambrian Hetang Formation in southern Anhui. Chinese Science Bulletin, 19: 1625-1628.

31.    Xiao, S., Life on Earth: Precambrian Eukaryotes. In R. C. Selley, R. Cocks, and I. R. Plimer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Geology. Volume 4, p. 354-363. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

30.    Xiao, S., Neoproterozoic glaciations and the fossil record. In G. S. Jenkins, M. McMenamin, C. P. McKay, and L. E. Sohl (ed.), Multidisciplinary Studies Exploring Extreme Proterozoic Environment Conditions. p. 199-214. American Geophysical Union (AGU), Washington DC.

29.    Li*, G. and S. Xiao, Tannuolina and Micrina (Tannuolinidae) from the Lower Cambrian of eastern Yunnan, South China, and their scleritome reconstruction. Journal of Paleontology, 78:900-913.

28.    Zhou*, C., R. Tucker, S. Xiao, Z. Peng, X. Yuan, and Z. Chen, New constraints on the ages of Neoproterozoic glaciations in South China. Geology, 32:437-440.

27.    Xiao, S., An arthropod sphinx. Chinese Science Bulletin, 49: 983-984.

26.    Xiao, S., H. Bao, H. Wang, A. J. Kaufman, C. Zhou, G. Li, X. Yuan, and H. Ling, The Neoproterozoic Quruqtagh Group in eastern Chinese Tianshan: Evidence for a post-Marinoan glaciation. Precambrian Research, 130:1-26.

25.    Xiao, S., New multicellular algal fossils and acritarchs in Doushantuo chert nodules (Neoproterozoic, Yangtze Gorges, South China). Journal of Paleontology, 78(2):393-401.

24.    Xiao, S., A. H. Knoll, X. Yuan, and C. M. Pueschel, Phosphatized multicellular algae in the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China, and the early evolution of florideophyte red algae. American Journal of Botany, 91:214-227.


23.    Kaufman, A. J., and S. Xiao, High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from ion microprobe analysis of individual microfossils. Nature, 425:279-282.


22.    Barfod, G.H., F. Albaréde, A. H. Knoll, S. Xiao, P. Télouk, R. Frei, and J. Baker, New Lu-Hf and Pb-Pb age constraints on the earliest animal fossils. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 201:203-212.

21.    Yuan, X., S. Xiao, R. L. Parsley, C. Zhou, Z. Chen and J. Hu, Towering sponges in an Early Cambrian Lagerstätte: Disparity between non-bilaterian and bilaterian epifaunal tierers at the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian transition. Geology, 30(4):363-366.

20.    Xiao, S., Mitotic topologies and mechanics of Neoproterozoic algae and animal embryos. Paleobiology, 28(2):244-250.

19.    Xiao, S., X. Yuan, M. Steiner and A. H. Knoll, Macroscopic carbonaceous compressions in a terminal Proterozoic shale: A reassessment of the Neoproterozoic Miaohe carbonaceous biota in South China. Journal of Paleontology, 76(2):347-376.

18.    Zhou, C., X. Yuan and S. Xiao, Phosphatized biotas from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation on the Yangtze Platform. Chinese Science Bulletin, 47(22):1918-1924.

17.    Yuan, X., S. Xiao, L. Yin, A. H. Knoll, C. Zhou, and X. Mu, Doushantuo Fossils: Life on the Eve of Animal Radiation. China University of Science and Technology Press, Hefei, China. 171 pages.


16.    Cao, R., X. Yuan, and S. Xiao, On morphogenesis of Conophyton stromatolites. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 40:318-329.

15.    Knoll, A. H. and S. Xiao, Precambrian Lagerstätten. In D. E.G. Briggs and P. R. Crowther (eds.) Palaeobiology II, p. 332-337. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.

14.    Yin, L., S. Xiao and X. Yuan, New observations on spicule-like structures from Doushantuo phosphorites at Weng'an, Guizhou Province. Chinese Science Bulletin, 46(21):1828-1832.

13.    Zhou, C., K. Yan, J. Hu, F. Meng, Z. Chen, Y. Xue, R. Cao, L. Yin, J. Wang, J. Wang, S. Xiao, H. Bao, and X. Yuan, Neoproterozoic tillites at Lantian, Xiuning County, Anhui Province. Journal of Stratigraphy, 25(4):247-252.

12.    Yuan, X., S. Xiao, J. Li, L. Yin and R. Cao, Pyritized chuarids with excystment structures from the late Neoproterozoic Lantian Formation in Anhui, South China. Precambrian Research, 107:251-261.


11.    Xiao, S., X. Yuan and A. H. Knoll, Eumetazoan fossils in terminal Proterozoic phosphorites? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97(25): 13684-13689.

10.    Xiao, S. and A. H. Knoll, Phosphatized animal embryos from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation in Weng'an, Guizhou, South China. Journal of Paleontology, 74(5): 767-788.


9.      Xiao, S. and A. H. Knoll, Cellular preservation in the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Lagerstätte, South China. Lethaia, 32: 219-240.

8.      Xiao, S. and A. H. Knoll, Embryos or algae? A reply. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 16(3): 313-323.

7.      Xiao, S., A. H. Knoll, L. Zhang and H. Hua, The discovery of Wengania globosa in Doushantuo phosphorites in Chadian, Shaanxi Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 16(3): 259-266.

6.      Knoll, A. H. and S. Xiao, On the age of the Doushantuo Formation. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica. 16(3): 225-236.


5.      Xiao, S., Y. Zhang, and A. H. Knoll, Three-dimensional preservation of algae and animal embryos in a Neoproterozoic phosphorite. Nature. 391: 553-558.

4.      Xiao, S., A. H. Knoll and X. Yuan, Morphological reconstruction of Miaohephyton bifurcatum, a possible brown alga from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, South China. Journal of Paleontology. 72(6): 1072-1086.

3.      Zhang Y., L. Yin, S. Xiao and A. H. Knoll, Permineralized fossils from the terminal Proterozoic Doushantuo Formation, South China. Paleontological Society Memoir 50: 1-52.

1997 and before

2.      Xiao, S., A. H. Knoll, A. J. Kaufman, L. Yin and Y. Zhang, 1997, Neoproterozoic fossils in Mesoproterozoic rocks? Chemostratigraphic resolution of a biostratigraphic conundrum from the North China Platform. Precambrian Research, 84(3-4): 197-220.

1.      Zhang, Y., L. Jin, S. Xiao and Y. Liang, 1993, Image analysis of stromatolite fabrics using a spatial frequency power spectrum analysis system. Journal of Geology, 101: 591-602.